A doll is a figure of a human being (or sometimes an animal) most commonly used as a toy for children, in ceremonies of magic and religion. There are records showing dolls have been used in Ancient Egypt , Greece and Rome. We were crafted from available materials such as clay, stone, wood, bone, ivory, leather or wax … Archaeological evidence also indicates that dolls were the earliest known toys.
Dolls have been part of human play for thousands of years – in 2004, in an archeological excavation on the Mediterranean island of Pantelleria, a 4,000-year-old stone doll was uncovered; the British Museum has many examples of ancient Egyptian rag dolls made of papyrus cloth. For centuries, toy dolls crossed continents and social strata, were made of sticks and rags, porcelain and vinyl and found everywhere in children’s hands. And because dolls are miniature beings, united in their own feelings, it is convenient for a culture to impose on them everything it wanted: just as much as they could be made from anything, they could be made into anything.
The toys transcend their function as playthings, when scientists carry dolls into the lab. We will bring bigotry to light and unleash violence. It is easy to identify the humanoid forms, allowing them to serve as scientific stand-ins and therapeutic companions. Also ideal for plotting out technical reference points is their familiar anatomy. Such five figurines have sparked decades of work and creativity, from scary to cool.
African American psychologists Kenneth and Mamie Phipps Clark used sets of toy babies—some with white skin, some with brown— to understand how black children living under segregation in the 1940s developed their sense of self. Black kids presented with both options preferred the pale doll; some even cried when asked which looked like them.
The Clarks took this as evidence that teenagers internalized their environment’s social values: because of their skin color, they regarded themselves as inferior. In the famous trial, where Kenneth argued that segregation contributed to self-hatred, the assessments impressed lawyers Brown v. Education board in. The 1954 decision on that case by the Supreme Court ultimately integrated schools and spurred a growing civil rights movement.
In the early ’60S, the blow-up Bobo helped psychologist Albert Bandura investigate how children learn from adults. At the time, his peers surmised that people made behavioral choices based on perceived rewards and punishments. Bandura suspected otherwise. His young study subjects instinctively imitated grown-ups who were rough with Bobo, hitting the clown with abandon.
When children saw male adults do so, they were more likely to strike, possibly because culture portrayed men as suitable role models for violence. Since test subjects did not see aggression result in rewards or fines, Bandura concluded that by merely copying others, we often develop complex behaviours. In studies on the effects of violent video games Bobo’s bonks still echo.
The vehicle safety history has been splattering of blood. Modern car makers lowered corpses onto windshields to see if their skulls would break and smash anesthetized baboons into airbags. That began to change in 1949 with the first-ever crash-test dummy, Sierra Sam. But Sam was tall and had bendy rubber joints which skewed outcomes, and the lack of industry-standard dummy specs made tests hard to replicate. The remedy was Hybrid II of 1972, whose weight and height for American men exactly matched the 50th percentile. Engineers developed new instruments to measure strikes at their joints and posture that are alive. Hybrids now come in a range of sizes, so producers can carry a whole family for the ride.
Most dolls don’t have genitals which are anatomically correct. But some investigators keep a collection of precisely equipped toys whose mission is to help abuse survivors disclose what happened to them. These so-called anatomical dolls give specificity to testimonials from children. Pediatrists, social workers and psychologists started holding in-depth dialogs with teenagers who they thought had been molested in the 1970s. The practical models pressured them to show more when they weren’t forthcoming. For one test, the toys made children interviewed twice as likely to identify a suspect about potential violence, and three times more likely to provide thorough details of their experience.
There are, however, ongoing debates about whether the floppy props might spark false increasingly use ersatz infants to help residents with Alzheimer’s disease. The trend began in the ’90s, after case studies showed improvement in symptoms thanks to dolls. “Within days, this withdrawn, frustrated, and depressed individual gained a new sense of meaning to her life,” wrote one researcher in 1990.
Nursing home employees said residents with toy companions in a 2006 pilot study appeared calmer and happier, and they had an increased sense of intent. Those receiving doll therapy in a 2014 experiment became less agitated when nurses left the room. Psychologists believe that the playthings can serve as transitional objects to help patients relate more comfortably to the world around them — similar to a child clinging to their favorite blanket.
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